Human Reproduction Archives
Human Reproduction Archives
Research Article Menopause

Factors influencing postmenopausal women’s quality of sleep

Thaís Gigliotti Malheiros Luzo, Bárbara Valença Pereira Conde, James Kageyama Coelho, José Mendes Aldrighi


Objective: Verify the factors associated with poor sleep quality among postmenopausal women. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study conducted with 185 postmenopausal women assisted at the outpatient clinic of Santa Casa de Sao Paulo. Data were collected regarding sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); quality of life according to the WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); and through the application of a questionnaire including information on socioeconomic profile, age of menopause, natural or surgical menopause, smoking, chronic diseases, use of hormonal therapy, hot flashes, and alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed using STATA 13 statistical software. Variables were compared by mean and standard deviation. Regression analysis was used to verify the possible factors associated with quality of sleep. The coefficients are considered significant when p<0.10. Results: 57.28% of the women investigated presented poor sleep or sleep disturbance. Negative correlation was observed between quality of sleep and smoking (p=0.083), whereas positive correlation was found between poor sleep quality and number of hot flashes (p=0.00). In addition, the earlier the menopause, the worse the quality of sleep (p=0.05). Conclusions: The following factors negatively influencing postmenopausal women’s quality of sleep were identified: smoking, number of hot flashes, and age of menopause. It is not possible to identify causality; however, worsening sleep quality was identified when these factors were present.


post menopausal period; sleep; smoking.


1. Zhang J-P, Wang YQ, Yan MQ, Li ZA, Du XP, Wu XQ. Menopausal symptoms and sleep quality during menopausal transition and postmenopause. Chin Med J. 2016;129(7):771-7. PMid:26996470.

2. Lampio L, Saaresranta T, Engblom J, Polo O, Polo-Kantola P. Predictors of sleep disturbance in menopausal transition. Maturitas. 2016;94:137-42. PMid:27823734.

3. Kloss JD, Tweedy K, Gilrain K. Psychological factors associated with sleep disturbance among perimenopausal women. Behav Sleep Med. 2004;2(4):177-90. PMid:15600054.

4. Madrid-Valero JJ, Martínez-Selva JM, Ribeiro do Couto B, Sánchez-Romera JF, Ordoñana JR. Age and gender effects on the prevalence of poor sleep quality in the adult population. Gac Sanit. 2017;31(1):18-22. PMid:27474487.

5. Knutson KL. Sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;24(5):731-43. PMid:21112022.

6. Attarian HP, Viola-Saltzman M. Sleep disorders in women: a guide to practical management. 2nd ed. Totowa: Humana Press; 2006.

7. Müller MR, Guimarães SS. Impacto dos transtornos do sono sobre o funcionamento diário e a qualidade de vida. Estud Psicol. 2007;24(4):519-28.

8. Soares CN. Insônia na menopausa e perimenopausa: características clínicas e opções terapêuticas. Arch Clin Psychiatry. 2006;33(2):103-9.

9. Fisher TE, Chervenak JL. Lifestyle alterations for the amelioration of hot flashes. Maturitas. 2012;71(3):217-20. PMid:22285470.

10. Strine TW, Chapman DP. Associations of frequent sleep insufficiency with health-related quality of life and health behaviors. Sleep Med. 2005;6(1):23-7. PMid:15680291.

11. Cray LA, Woods NF, Herting JR, Mitchell ES. Symptom clusters during the late reproductive stage through the early postmenopause: observations from the Seattle midlife women’s health study. Menopause. 2012;19(8):864-9. PMid:22643229.

12. Tang J, Liao Y, Kelly BC, Xie L, Xiang YT, Qi C, et al. Gender and regional differences in sleep quality and insomnia: a general population-based study in Hunan Province of China. Sci Rep. 2017;7:7. PMid:28262807.

13. Grandner MA, Smith TE, Jackson N, Jackson T, Burgard S, Branas C. Geographic distribution of insufficient sleep across the United States: a county-level hotspot analysis. Sleep Health. 2015;1(3):158-65. PMid:26989761.

5ad64e710e88250170ead76d hra Articles
Links & Downloads

Hum Reprod Arch

Share this page
Page Sections